Tier 3 Development Team

Dynamic Measurement Group

  • Ruth Kaminski
  • Kelli Cummings
  • Annie Hommel
  • Lisa Howard
  • Kelly Powell-Smith
  • Katherine Schwinler
  • Josh Wallin
  • Karla Wysocki

The Ohio State University

  • Howard Goldstein


  • Rob Horner, University of Oregon

What do we know from existing research?

  • The lowest performing children benefit the most from language and early literacy intervention that is:
    • Focused on a few priority skills
    • More explicit
    • More comprehensive
    • More systematic

Children served:

  • Children who display significant delay in language and early literacy compared to peers
  • Children who are not making adequate progress in T2


  • Teacher-led
  • Increase in opportunities to respond (OTR)
  • More restricted focus on prerequisite and high-priority skills

Brief, reading-related activities that are intense, engaging, and focused

Brief (5 – 20 minute) reading related, small group activities in the domans of:

  • Vocabulary
  • Phonological awareness
  • Alphabet knowledge
  • Comprehension


  • Teacher-led
  • Smaller group size (1-3 children per group)
  • High specificity of instructional design
  • Explicit instruction
  • Increased opportunities to respond in guided practice with immediate teacher support
  • Systematic scope and sequence of skills
  • Carefully designed instructional examples
  • Accommodations specified for individualizing for children with identified disabilities


  • Inclusion of movement, songs, games appropriate for preschool children
  • Inclusion of extension activities for additional practice and integration of newly acquired skills/competencies in center activities


Restricted scope and sequence of skills
Focus on prerequisite and high-priority skills

What We Expect to Learn

How to accelerate the progress of preschool children who are lagging behind their peers to put them on track to be successful in learning to read when they get to school

  • What are the critical, high-priority skills to teach at Tier 3?
  • What is the most effective instructional sequence?
  • What activities and strategies are realistic and doable in early childhood settings?
  • What activities and strategies are most effective?
  • What activities and strategies are most efficient?