Tier 2 Development Leadership Team at The Ohio State University

The Ohio State University

  • Howard Goldstein
  • Robyn Ziolkowski
  • Sean Noe
  • Rhonda Tabbah
  • Jamie O’Rourke

Dynamic Measurement Group

  • Ruth Kaminski


  • Richard Parker, Texas A&M University at College Station

Tier 2 Intervention Development Plan

Skill Focused Listening Center Activities

  • Designed to be implemented independent of teacher instruction. Monitoring can be carried out by a paraprofessional.
  • Supplemental, rather than substitute for Tier 1 curriculum in 4 major domains
    • Phonological Awareness
    • Print Awareness/Alphabet Knowledge
    • Vocabulary
    • Comprehension
    • Follows a generalized developmental/hierarchical process based on previous evaluation of curricular skill implementation timelines.

      For example, in the Phonological Awareness area, Storybook Script 1 would focus on “Listening for Sounds: Same and Different,” whereas Storybook Script 10 would focus on “Identification of First Sounds in Word.”

How is the Tier 2 Intervention Delivered?

    • Activities are administered in “listening centers” wherein specially designed instructional scripts have been pre-recorded onto compact discs.
    • Children listen using headphones and respond to the embedded interactive activities. Familiar characters (e.g., Sally the Sound Seal, Luke the Letter Lion) serve as the teaching “guide.”
    • Pre-recorded scripts contain visual and auditory cues to increase children’s ability to complete the listening center each day with minimal adult assistance.
      • A bell sound prompts children to turn the book pages
      • Pictures/icons (e.g., kitten) appear in the reading books and on written materials to serve as orienting cues, so when children are asked to follow along they can check whether they are in the right place.

How do We Know the Intervention is Effective?

  • Mastery monitoring probes are used to track progress learning the skills being taught that week
  • We have routinely seen students become incrementally more proficient in their responses over consecutive days of the week

What Do We Expect to Learn?

That embedding supplemental instruction within a book reading activity enables most children to learn skills needed to progress within the the Tier 1 curriculum.


Questions we expect to answer:

  • What are the language and literacy profiles of children for whom Tier 2 is most effective?
  • For what areas (PA, Print/Alphabet, Vocabulary, Comprehension) are Tier 2 curriculum most and least effective?
  • Do we need to increase/decrease the opportunities to respond in Tier 2 to be effective?
  • Can we combine skill sets and still maintain high levels of learning?

What Happens if ……….?

  • We expect that not all Skill Focused Listening Center Activities will lend themselves to this degree of independent interaction and implementation
  • In those cases, we would have a paraprofessional leading the activity wherein we have added instructional scripts